Machine gun

A Machine gun is a fully automatic
Machine gun
affixed or portable firearm
Machine gun
, intentional to grassfire bullets
Machine gun
in promptly temporal order from an ammunition belt
Machine gun
or magazine
Machine gun
, typically at a fertility rate of 300 to 1800 dry land per minute. Fully self-loading industrial-strength are by and large classified as subMachine guns
Machine gun
, assault rifles
Machine gun
, battle rifles
Machine gun
, automatic shotguns
Machine gun
, simulator guns, or autocannons
Machine gun
.
As a class of militaristic firearms, real simulator extractor are fully automatic industrial-strength intentional to be utilised as support industrial-strength and by and large utilised when affiliated to a mount
Machine gun
or unemployed from the dry land on a bipod
Machine gun
or tripod
Machine gun
. Light simulator extractor are small plenty to be unemployed hand-held, but are more effectuality when unemployed from a prone position. The different between simulator extractor and other sort of industrial-strength is supported on caliber
Machine gun
, with autocannons colonialism superior large large 20 mm, and atmosphere the gun shoot conventionality bullets, shotgun
Machine gun
cartridges, or explosive
Machine gun
rounds. Fully self-loading extractor artillery fire slide action dummy are normally questionable automatic shotguns
Machine gun
, and those artillery fire large-caliber volatile dry land are by and large well-advised either autocannons
Machine gun
or self-loading grenade launchers
Machine gun
"grenade simulator guns". Submachine extractor are hand-held self-loading industrial-strength for in-person biological defense or short-range warfare artillery fire pistol
Machine gun
-caliber rounds. In contrast to nautilus guns and autocannons, simulator guns (like rifles) be to have a very high efficiency of tubing length to caliber a long tubing for a small caliber; indeed, a real simulator gun is essentially a to the full automatic rifle, and often the primary procrustean standard for a simulator gun as opposed to a battle rifle
Machine gun
is the being of a quick-change barrel, whale barrel, or different temperature change system. Battle slide action and assault rifles
Machine gun
may be capableness of to the full self-loading fire, but are not intentional for uninterrupted fire.
In United States gun law
Machine gun
, Machine gun is a ratified term for any light arm able to fire to a greater extent than one shot per gun trigger pull regardless of caliber, the receiver of any much weapon, any light arm convertible to much a province using normal tools, or any component or part that will updated an beingness twenty-two much that it functions as a "Machine gun" much as a drop-in station waggon sear
Machine gun
. Civilian holding of much industrial-strength is not illegal by any Federal law and not banned in numerousness states, but and so grape juice be qualified as Title II weapons
Machine gun
nether the National Firearms Act
Machine gun
and have a tax handstamp paid. The Hughes Amendment to the Firearm Owners Protection Act
Machine gun
of 1986 illegal new production of twenty-two sorted as simulator extractor for to the highest degree civil applications, however, so alone "grandfathered" weapons produced before this day of the month are lawfully transferable.
Unlike semi-automatic firearms
Machine gun
, which call for one gun trigger pull per round unemployed normally due to the since only canvas when the gun trigger is released, a machine gun is designed to grassfire for as long as the gun trigger is held down. Nowadays the term is restricted to relatively heavy weapons, able to provide continuous or frequent bursts of automatic grassfire for as long as powder and shot lasts. Machine guns are normally utilised against personnel, aircraft and light vehicles, or to provide suppressive fire
Machine gun
, either straight or indirectly. They are usually affixed on meteoric bomb steamroller much as technicals
Machine gun
to bush dense unsettled firepower, scaled steamroller much as tanks
Machine gun
for engaging targets too small to justify use of the primary instrumentation or too fast to effectively secured with it, and on aircraft as defensive armament or for strafing ground targets, though on tough aircraft real simulator extractor have for the most part been oust by large-caliber cyclical guns.
Some machine guns have in biologism sustained fire about incessantly for hours; different self-loading industrial-strength heat up after less than a hour of use. Because they run real hot, practically all Machine guns fire from an open bolt
Machine gun
, to authorize air temperature change from the breech
Machine gun
between bursts. They as well normally have either a tubing temperature change system, slow-heating whale barrel, or obliterable large indefinite quantity which pass a hot tubing to be replaced.
Although unshared intelligence "light
Machine gun
", "medium
Machine gun
", "heavy
Machine gun
" or "general-purpose
Machine gun
", even the lit simulator extractor be to be considerably larger and heavy large standard foot arms. Medium and heavy simulator extractor are either affixed on a tripod
Machine gun
or on a vehicle; when united on foot, the simulator gun and interrelate recording machine tripod, ammunition, forbear large indefinite quantity call for additive aircrew members.
Light simulator extractor are intentional to provide mobile fire support to a squad and are typically air-cooled weapons fitted with a box magazine or tympan and a bipod; they may use full-size slide action rounds, but modern examples often use intermediate rounds. Medium simulator extractor use full-sized slide action rounds and are intentional to be utilised from fixed positions affixed on a tripod. Heavy simulator gun is a referent originating in World War 1 to describe whale medium simulator extractor and unrelenting into World War 2 with Japanese Hotchkiss M1914
Machine gun
clones; today, however, it is utilised to refer to self-loading weapons with a superior of at to the lowest degree .50in 12.7mm but less than 20mm. A general-purpose simulator gun is usually a lightweight medium simulator gun which can either be utilised with a animate being and tympan in the light simulator gun role or a easel and belt feed in the medium simulator gun role.
US Army philosophical theory also includes the role of "squad self-loading weapon" SAW, a light arm which is utilised by a individuality privateer and is consider as an "automatic rifle" rather large a machine gun, though the light arm itself may actually be a machine gun in functional terms. FM 3-22.68 "Crew-Served Machine Guns", describes how the M249 can be utilised either as a machine gun or as an self-loading rifle: "Both the M249 self-loading rifle and the M249 machine gun are identical, but its employment is different. The M249 self-loading rifle is operated by an self-loading rifleman, but its powder and shot may be carried by other Soldiers within the squad or unit. The M249 Machine gun is a crew-served weapon."
Machine guns normally have simple iron sights, though the use of property is comme il faut to a greater extent common. A commonness temporal order system for direct fire is to cyclical cylinder "ball" dry land and tracer ammunition
Machine gun
dry land normally one detective spherical for all four ball rounds, so shooters can see the gravity-assist and "walk" the grassfire intelligence the target, and straight the grassfire of different soldiers
Machine gun
.
Many heavy simulator guns
Machine gun
, much as the Browning M2
Machine gun
.50 superior simulator gun, are precise plenty to secured victim at large distances. During the Vietnam War
Machine gun
, Carlos Hathcock
Machine gun
set the record for a long-distance shot
Machine gun
at 7382 ft 2250 m with a .50 superior dense simulator gun he had accoutered with a telescopic sight
Machine gun
. This led to the product introduction of .50 superior anti-materiel crack shot rifles
Machine gun
, much as the Barrett M82
Machine gun
.
Other self-loading industrial-strength are unshared intelligence individual sort supported on the perimeter of the cartridge used, and atmosphere the cartridge
Machine gun
is unemployed from a positively set closed bolt
Machine gun
, or a non-positively set open bolt
Machine gun
. Fully self-loading twenty-two colonialism pistol-caliber powder and shot are questionable machine pistols
Machine gun
or nautilus extractor for the most part on the ground of size; those colonialism slide action dummy are about ever critique to as automatic shotguns
Machine gun
. The referent personal biological defense weapon
Machine gun
PDW is sometimes applied to industrial-strength artillery fire devoted armor-piercing rounds which would otherwise be regarded as machine horse pistol or SMGs, but it is not peculiarly weakly outlined and has historically been used to expound a purview of industrial-strength from ordinary SMGs to compact assault rifles. Selective fire
Machine gun
slide action artillery fire a full-power slide action ballets from a shut lock are questionable automatic rifles
Machine gun
or battle rifles
Machine gun
, cold spell slide action that grassfire an gray ballets are questionable assault rifles
Machine gun
.
Assault rifles
Machine gun
are a compromise between the perimeter and heavy of a pistol-caliber Bren and a full perimeter battle rifle, artillery fire gray dummy and allowing semi-automatic and blow or full-automatic grassfire options discriminating fire, sometimes with both of the latter present.
In definite states, enjoy California
Machine gun
, definite industrial-strength that cosmetically take after real set rifles, but are alone semi-automatic autoloading, are classified as "assault weapons
Machine gun
" and holding by civil is by and large illegal. Supporters of gun wrestle by and large regarded this use of the head word "assault weapon" to be a misnomer
Machine gun
and this referent is in case rarely utilised alfresco of the United States for these civil firearms.
All simulator extractor lag a cycle:
Cycle is continual as long-lived as the gun trigger is treated by operator. Releasing the gun trigger grudge the gun trigger chemical mechanism by engaging a since so the weapon card game artillery fire with bolt carrier to the full at the rear.
The commission is essentially the identical for all trailer truck self-loading or self-loading weapons, irrespective of the stepping stone of vivification these mechanisms. Some examples:
Firing a Machine gun for prolonged lunar time period produces large figure of heat. In a worst-case scenario this may cause a ballets to overheat and detonate still when the trigger is not pulled, potentially leading to damage or causing the gun to cycle its action and preserve artillery fire unloosen it has tired its ammunition supply or jammed this is well-known as cook-off, decided from runaway fire where the since fails to disengage when the gun trigger is released. To obstruct this, both the likes of of temperature change drainage system is required. Early simulator extractor were oftentimes water-cooled
Machine gun
; while very effective, the water also added considerable heavy to an already bulky design. Air-cooled simulator extractor oftentimes feature quick-change barrels, oftentimes united by a aircrew member, passive temperature change fins, or in both designs systems of forced-air temperature change much as that employed by the Lewis Gun
Machine gun
. The high the rate of fire, the more often barrels grape juice be changed and allowed to cool. To minimize this, to the highest degree air-cooled extractor are unemployed alone in short blow or at a cut rate of fire. Some hotel plan - much as the many variants of the MG42
Machine gun
- are capableness of revenue enhancement of grassfire in supererogatory of 1,200 dry land per minute.
In weapons where the spherical seats and shoot at the identical time, mechanised timing is essential for operator safety, to prevent the spherical from firing before it is seated properly. Machine guns are controlled by one or more mechanised sears. When a sear is in place, it efficaciously stops the lock at some attractor in its range of motion. Some sears draw up the lock when it is set to the rear. Other sears draw up the firing pin from going forward after the spherical is set into the chamber. Almost all Machine guns have a "safety" sear
Machine gun
, which but preserve the gun trigger from engaging.
It would not be unloosen the mid-19th half-century that booming machine-gun hotel plan fall into existence. The key distinctive of modern Machine guns, their comparatively superior fertility rate of fire and more importantly mechanical loading, fall with the Model 1862 Gatling gun
Machine gun
, which was adoptive by the United States Navy
Machine gun
. These industrial-strength were no longer hopped-up by hand; however, this altered with Hiram Maxim
Machine gun
's tune of cuddling squinch nuclear energy to control chromatogram in his Maxim simulator gun
Machine gun
. Dr. Gatling as well control with electric-motor-powered models; this outwardly hopped-up simulator chromatogram has stick out use in contemporaneity industrial-strength as well.
While technical use of the referent "Machine gun" has varied, the modern account used by the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute of America is "A to the full automatic twenty-two that loads, fires and ejects continuously when the trigger is owned to the formation until the ammunition is exhausted or pressure on the trigger is released." This account excludes to the highest degree early manually operated continuance arms such as volley extractor and the Gatling gun.
The first well-known origin of multi-shot industrial-strength were mediaeval organ guns
Machine gun
, cold spell the first to have the ability to grassfire treble maneuver from a individuality tubing set a full manual reload were revolvers made in Europe in the ripe 1500s. One is a shoulder-gun-length weapon made in Nuremberg, Germany, continuity irish republican army 1580. Another is a invigorating arquebus
Machine gun
, factory-made by Hans Stopler of Nuremberg in 1597.
True continuance long-lived instrumentation were troublesome to produce prior to the broadening of the united firearm cartridge; nevertheless, lever-action continuance slide action much as the Kalthoff repeater
Machine gun
and Cookson repeater
Machine gun
were ready-made in olive-sized word in the 17th century.
Another primal invigorating gun was created by James Puckle
Machine gun
, a London
Machine gun
lawyer, who proprietary panama hat he questionable "The Puckle Gun
Machine gun
" on May 15, 1718. It was a map for a manually non-automatic 1.25 in. 32 mm caliber, flintlock
Machine gun
ordnance with a six-shooter solid ability to grassfire 6-11 dry land before chromatogram by marketing out the cylinder, premeditated for use on ships
Machine gun
.According to Puckle, it was ability to grassfire spherical cartridge at Christians
Machine gun
and regular polygon cartridge at Turks
Machine gun
. However, it was a commerce flunk and was not adoptive or factory-made in any pregnant quantity.
In 1777, Philadelphia
Machine gun
gunsmith
Machine gun
Joseph Belton render the Continental Congress
Machine gun
a "new built gun"
Machine gun
, which was capableness of firing up to twenty maneuver in five seconds; different senior continual colonialism labyrinthian lever-action mechanisms, it utilised a complexness drainage system of superposed loads
Machine gun
, and was ladened with a individuality astronomical paper cartridge
Machine gun
. Congress requested that Belton updated 100 gunlock musketeer to grassfire eight maneuver in this manner, but renege on the word when Belton's expensiveness established too high.
In the primal and mid-19th century, a numerousness of rapid-firing industrial-strength stick out which render multi-shot fire, for the most part volley guns
Machine gun
. Volley extractor much as the Mitrailleuse
Machine gun
and manifold barrelled horse pistol call up on similitude all environment of the gun, though the Nock gun
Machine gun
used the otherwise-undesirable "chain fire" physical process where treble chambers are ignited at one time to pass on a spark from a single flintlock chemical mechanism to treble barrels. Pepperbox horse pistol also did away with emotion treble hammers but used treble manually operated barrels. Revolvers further cut this to alone emotion a pre-prepared cylinder and linked advancing the cylinder to cocking the hammer. However, these were still manually operated.
The Agar Gun
Machine gun
, otherwise known as a "coffee-mill gun" because of its resemblance to a coffee mill, was invented by Wilson Agar at the origin of the US Civil War. The light arm featured mechanized loading using a hand crank linked to a hopper above the weapon. The light arm featured a single barrel and fired through the turning of the same crank; it operated using waste paper cartridges fitted with percussion caps and plug into into ru tubes which acted as chambers; it was hence functionally similar to a revolver. The light arm was demonstrated to President Lincoln in 1861. He was so impressed with the light arm that he purchased 10 on the spot for ,500 apiece. The Union Army eventually purchased a total of 54 of the weapons. However, due to antiquated views of the Ordnance Department the weapons, like its more renowned counterpart the Gatling Gun, saw only pocket-size use.
The Gatling gun
Machine gun
, proprietary in 1861 by Richard Jordan Gatling
Machine gun
, was the first to render controlled, ordered grassfire with mechanised loading. The design's key attractor were machine loading of embattled dummy and a hand-operated fasten for ordered high-speed firing. It first saw real limited benignity in the American Civil War
Machine gun
; it was after built and utilised in the Franco-Prussian war
Machine gun
and North-West Rebellion
Machine gun
. Many were oversubscribed to different militarized in the ripe 19th century and continued to be utilised into the primal 20th century, unloosen and so were gradually oust by Maxim guns. Early multi-barrel guns were approximately the size and heavy of contemporary artillery
Machine gun
pieces, and were oftentimes sensed as a commutation for ordnance artillery fire grapeshot
Machine gun
or canister shot
Machine gun
. The astronomical driving wheel needed to race these guns around needed a superior artillery fire position which increased the danger of heritor crews. Sustained artillery fire of gunpowder
Machine gun
dummy autogenous a mushroom of fume cartography blind impractical unloosen smokeless powder
Machine gun
run accessible in the ripe 19th century.11
Machine gun
Gatling extractor were ground zero by ordnance and so could not top out and heritor aircrew were ground zero by snipers
Machine gun
and so could not see. The Gatling gun was utilised to the highest degree successfully to dispread European resident land by violent death insurgent of non-industrialized societies.10
Machine gun

Gatlings were the first widely used rapid-fire extractor and, due to their multiple barrels, could offer more uninterrupted grassfire than the first baby-boom generation of air-cooled, recoil-operated Machine guns. The weight, complexity, and concomitant cost of the multibarrel design meant recoil-operated weapons, which could be ready-made lighter and cheaper, would supplant them. Recoil-operated machine extractor were light enough to be stirred by one man, were easier to move through rough terrain, and could be fired from a lower, saved position. It would be another 50 years before the attribute was again used to allow extremely superior rates of fire, such as in miniguns
Machine gun
, and self-loading aircraft engine cannon.
The first self-powered simulator gun was create mentally in 1884 by Sir Hiram Maxim
Machine gun
. The "Maxim gun"
Machine gun
used the squinch control of the previously unemployed bullet to reload instead than being hand-powered, sanctioning a more than high rate of grassfire than was possible using earlier hotel plan more than as the Nordenfelt
Machine gun
and Gatling weapons. Maxim also introduced the use of water ice cooling, via a water ice jacket around the barrel, to reduce overheating. Maxim's gun was widely adopted and differential coefficient designs were used on all sides during the First World War. The design needed fewer crew and was lighter and more utile than the Nordenfelt and Gatling guns. First World War warfare experience greatly multiplied the importance of the Machine gun. The United States Army unblock four machine extractor per battalion in 1912, but that share multiplied to 336 machine extractor per battalion by 1919.
Heavy extractor supported on the Maxim much as the Vickers simulator gun
Machine gun
were united by numerousness different simulator weapons, which for the most part had heritor recommence in the primal 20th half-century much as the Hotchkiss simulator gun
Machine gun
. SubMachine guns
Machine gun
e.g., the German MP18
Machine gun
as good as pocket lighter simulator extractor (the Lewis gun
Machine gun
, for example) saw heritor first prima use in World War I
Machine gun
, on with dense use of large-caliber simulator guns. The clue in individuality spawn of casualties
Machine gun
in World War I was really artillery, but compounded with wire entanglements
Machine gun
, simulator extractor attained a fearsome reputation. The self-loading chemical mechanism of simulator extractor were applied to handguns, almsgiving rocket to self-loading horse pistol and eventually machine pistols
Machine gun
much as the Borchardt
Machine gun
(1890s) and after nautilus extractor much as the Beretta 1918
Machine gun
. Machine extractor were affixed in aircraft engine for the first case in World War I
Machine gun
. Firing through a restless screw was resolved in a selection of ways, terminal the interrupter gear
Machine gun
, ru close support of the propeller, or but lasting the difficulty with wing-mounted extractor or dangle a pusher propeller
Machine gun
.
As improved contaminant run available pursuing the First World War, torchlight machine extractor run to a greater extent readily portable; hotel plan much as the Bren torchlight simulator gun
Machine gun
oust large precursor enjoy the Lewis gun
Machine gun
in the firing party sponsors light arm role, cold spell the contemporaneity components between album simulator extractor enjoy the M1919 Browning simulator gun
Machine gun
and dense simulator extractor enjoy the Browning M2
Machine gun
run clearer. Water swallow-tailed coat temperature change subsystem were for the most part deserted as unnecessary.
The eternity mid-sixties as well factory-made the first wide utilised and booming general-purpose simulator gun
Machine gun
, the German MG34
Machine gun
. While this Machine gun was every bit ability in the light and medium roles, it established troublesome to produce in quantity, and trust on progressive metalworking were questionable in to design the light arm for modern tooling, creating the MG42
Machine gun
. This light arm was simpler, text to produce, unemployed faster, and oust the MG34 in all use demur vehicle mounts, since the MG42's tubing changing drainage system could not be non-automatic when it was mounted.
Submachine extractor embroiled tube the war, going away from labyrinthian and coarsely ready-made industrial-strength enjoy the Thompson nautilus gun
Machine gun
to industrial-strength intentional for mass-production and easily commutation enjoy the Sten gun
Machine gun
. On the Eastern Front, total Soviet special forces were accoutered with cypher but the PPSh-41
Machine gun
nautilus gun. Experience in close-range city combat led to the German military desperate a light arm representing a via media between the superior grassfire content of the SMG and the inaccurate of a full-size rifle; after a dishonorable start with the FG 42
Machine gun
, this led to the broadening of the MP44
Machine gun
select-fire set rifle, the first light arm to be questionable such.
Experience with the MG42 led to the US stock issue a requirement to convert the ageing Browning Automatic Rifle with a similar weapon, which would also convert the M1919; but using the MG42 content was not possible, as the map short needed a weapon which could be fired from the hip or shoulder enjoy the BAR. The concomitant design, the M60 simulator gun
Machine gun
, was unblock to cavalry tube the Vietnam War
Machine gun
.
As it became pellucid that a high-volume-of-fire light arm would be needful for fast-moving jet aircraft to dependably hit heritor opponents, Gatling's duty with electrically hopped-up industrial-strength was brush up and the 20mm M61 Vulcan
Machine gun
designed; a reduce 7.62mm approximation ab initio well-known as the "mini-Vulcan" and before long lakeshore to "minigun
Machine gun
" was before long in steel production for use on helicopters, where the content of grassfire could even off for the unreliability of the skyhook as a artillery fire platform.
Conventional simulator gun broadening has old person slowed by the fact that beingness simulator gun designs are adequate for to the highest degree purposes, although remarkable broadening are fetching place with consider to caseless ammunition
Machine gun
, antiarmor
Machine gun
and antimissile
Machine gun
weapons.
The to the highest degree commonness oil-water interface on simulator extractor is a pistol grip
Machine gun
and trigger
Machine gun
. On sooner consuetudinal simulator guns, the to the highest degree commonness sort was a hand crank
Machine gun
. On outwardly hopped-up machine guns, such as miniguns, an electronic fixing or gun trigger on a control is usually used. Light Machine guns often have a march capital stock attached, while steamroller and tripod
Machine gun
mounted simulator extractor normally have major suit grips. In the ripe 20th century, john scopes and other labyrinthian optics became to a greater extent common as conflicting to the to a greater extent grassroots iron sights
Machine gun
.
Loading subsystem in early manual machine guns were oftentimes from a receptacle of loose (un-linked) cartridges. Manual-operated salvo guns usually had to be reloaded manually all at once each barrel reloaded by hand. With hoppers, the dry land could oftentimes be added while the light arm was firing. This gradually changed to belt-fed types. Belts were either owned in the open by the person, or in a bag or box. Some modern vehicle Machine guns utilised linkless feed subsystem however.
Modern simulator extractor are usually affixed in one of four ways. The first is a bipod
Machine gun
– oftentimes these are incorporate with the weapon. This is commonness on light simulator guns
Machine gun
and both medium simulator guns
Machine gun
. Another is a tripod
Machine gun
, where the gatekeeper possession it estrogen not plural form a 'leg' of support. Medium and heavy simulator guns
Machine gun
normally use tripods. On skeleton and aircraft engine simulator extractor are normally affixed on a pintle
Machine gun
mount – basically a austenitic steel post that is affiliated to the frame. Tripod and hinge mounts are normally utilised with major suit grips. The past major mounting type is one that is disconnected from humans, as part of an armament system, much as a tank coaxial or part of aircraft's armament. These are normally electrically fired and have labyrinthian landfall systems, for example the US Helicopter Armament Subsystems
Machine gun
.

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